Patients’ Body Responds To The Anticancer Virus

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Patients’ Body Responds To The Anticancer Virus

6 A new study led by researchers at the Ohio University Comprehensive Cancer Cancer- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute proves that this happens because of the patients’ immune system that eliminates quickly the anticancer virus.

Patients' Body Responds To The Anticancer Virus
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The results of this study are published in the journal Nature Medicine and shows that the body responds to the anticancer virus as it does in the case of an infection. Additionally, specialized immune cells, called natural killer start to move in to eliminate the therapeutic virus in the brain and all these happen within hours.

Patients' Body Responds To The Anticancer Virus
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Scientists show that these cells attack the viruses when they express specific molecules particular molecules on their surface. These molecules are called NKp30 and NKp46. Caligiuri, one of the John L. Marakas Nationwide Insurance Enterprise Foundation Chair in Cancer Research says: “When we blocked those receptors, the virus has more time to work, and mice with these brain tumors live longer. The next step is to block these molecules on NK cells in glioblastoma patients and see if we can improve their outcome.”

Patients' Body Responds To The Anticancer Virus
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He also added: “These receptor molecules enable the NK cells to recognize and destroy the anticancer viruses before the viruses can destroy the tumor.” The study involved human glioblastoma tumor tissue, an oncolytic herpes simplex virus, mouse models, one of which hosted both human glioblastoma cells and human NK cells.

 

Patients’ Body Responds To The Anticancer Virus

All You Should Know About Cancer Cells

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All You Should Know About Cancer Cells

All You Should Know About Cancer Cells: To be able to easily understand what cancer is, regardless of its type, you first have to know how cancer cells are developed. Cancer cells are the cells that grow and divide in an abnormal manner. The development of cancer cells in the human body is actually quite common. Unhealthy and old cells are constantly developed. When they get damaged, the body replaces them with healthy cells. Well, cancer is formed when the body fails to recognize cancer cells and consequently, they are not replaced. Masses of cancer cells form tumors.

Why are cancer cells developed?

Commonly it has been considered that healthy cells fail to recognize the cancerous ones when the immune system is damaged or affected in a way. However, it is important to know that there are numerous theories out there regarding the reason why healthy cells fail to complete their normal evolution, leading to the development of tumors. Some specialists actually claim that this happens when there is a lack of some molecules which are able to aid this process. Others say that stem cells may also be turned into cancer cells, at least when there is a surplus of SP2 protein.

All You Should Know About Cancer Cells
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How are cancer cells developed?

The human body is formed by cells. Cells are actually considered to be the basic unit of life of all living organisms. The body contains both healthy and damaged or old cells. Healthy cells are produced constantly to replace the old ones. As more cells get old and damaged, other healthy cells are constantly formed. Well, when this process is affected, cancer is formed.

Cells that stop dividing in a controlled manner cause cancer. The disease is formed when healthy cells fail to recognize and replace the damaged ones. Old and damaged cells are not replaced by healthy ones, but healthy cells continue to be produced, even though the body does not need them. All these cells create masses of tissue. Shortly, this is how tumors are developed.

All You Should Know About Cancer Cells
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For the human body to function properly, the balance between healthy and old cells has to be normal. When this simple process is affected in a way or another, cancerous tumors are formed. Tumors can be benign and malignant.

Cancer cells have the ability to spread. This means that they can easily spread to other parts of the body, causing secondary tumors.

All You Should Know About Cancer Cells
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Understanding how cancer cells are formed is not that difficult. However, you first need to know how cells function and the process through which healthy cells replace the cells that die.

Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the cancer formed in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancers diagnosed in women from all over the world. Even though breast cancer is most common in women, it can be diagnosed in men, too. This disease can be extremely hard to overcome, but when diagnosed in one of its early stages, breast cancer be cured.

Breast cancer
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Signs and symptoms

Early detection is crucial when talking about breast cancer. This is why patients should be careful at all signs and symptoms that may indicate the presence of this disease. There are many such symptoms that can be mentioned. They include:

  • The growth of a breast lump;
  • Bloody discharge from the nipple;
  • A change in the breast’s size or shape;
  • Redness of the skin;
  • Inverted nipple;
  • Changes to the skin over the breast;
  • Peeling, scaling or flaking of the nipple or the breast skin.

In case you trace any of these changes, you should see a doctor as soon as possible. Not all changes in your breast will turn out being breast cancer, but it is better to be sure.

Breast cancer
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Causes and risk factors

What causes breast cancer is not certain. Breast cancer occurs when breast cells start growing in an abnormal manner. These are cells that divide more rapidly than healthy cells. When cancerous tumors grow, accumulating cells can start spreading to other organs of the body.

In most cases, breast cancer begins in the cells of the milk-producing ducts. However, the condition can also begin in the milk glands. Although there are no causes that can be associated to this condition, researchers have found a series of risk factors that may increase the possibility of developing breast cancer.

Here are some things you should know about breast cancer risk factors:

  • Women are more likely to develop this condition compared to men.
  • Breast cancer risk increases with age, so women over 55 are considered to be more likely to be diagnosed with the disease.
  • Patients who have already been diagnosed with breast cancer or who have someone in the family suffering from this condition, may develop it.

Other risk factors include:

  • Inherited genes that increase cancer risk;
  • Radiation exposure;
  • Obesity;
  • Alcohol consumption;
  • Post-menopausal hormone therapy;
  • Beginning your period before the age of 12;
  • Having your first child after the age of 35;
  • Beginning menopause after 55.

One of the most important things you need to know is that having these risk factors will not necessarily mean that you will develop breast cancer. However, making simple changes in your daily life may reduce the risk of developing this form of cancer. Exercise, limit alcohol consumption, avoid smoking and try to lead a healthy lifestyle.


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Diagnosis

There are several tests that doctors can use to diagnose breast cancer. Some of the most important ones include:

  1. Breast exam -- your doctor will check for lumps or other abnormalities.
  2. Mammogram -- is a test used to screen for breast cancer.
  3. Breast ultrasound -- uses waves to produce images of the breast, helping doctors find abnormalities.
  4. Biopsy -- can be used to remove a sample of the breast cells that are believed to be cancerous. The sample is used for laboratory tests.
  5. Breast magnetic resonance imaging -- uses a magnet and radio waves to create pictures of the breast’s structure.

After being diagnosed, breast cancer is staged. Stages range from 0 to IV.

  • Stage 0 -- the cancer is very small and noninvasive;
  • Stages 1-3 -- the cancer is located within the breast, spreading to regional lymph nodes;
  • Stage 4 -- the cancer starts spreading to other organs.

Breast cancer
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Treatment

A doctor will establish the right treatment for each patient. Treatment will vary depending on the stage in which the disease is diagnosed, but also the overall health of the patient.

  • Surgery. Many patients undergo breast cancer surgery to remove the cancerous cells.
  • Radiation therapy. This therapy uses energy and x-rays to kill cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It can be used both before and after surgery, to shrink cancerous tumors or prevent recurrence, respectively.
  • Hormone therapy. This therapy can be used after surgery to decrease the chances of cancer recurrence.


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The human body is built of cells. The body creates cells, who have a circle of life. Cells die to be replaced by healthy cells. When healthy cells become abnormal, they divide more quickly than they should. Tumors actually are abnormal body cells that form a mass or a lump. This is the main reason why breast cancer can be formed any time, by anyone. Trying to get an early diagnosis and starting the right treatment as soon as possible will help patients easier overcome this disease.