Plant and Animal Cell Diagram

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Plant and Animal Cell Diagram

The animal and plant cells are both eukaryotic cells. The structures are complex and they have differences with them that is major. Often times people just don’t understand how different these cells are from each other and get them confused because of not understanding them.

Plant cells have cell walls that rigid while animal cells do not. With the animal cells not having rigid walls they can form and adopt into a variety of shapes. The phagocytic cell that comes from the animal cell can absorb from the structures and the plant cells don’t have this type of ability. The plant cells come with chloroplasts that helps because they need utilization with the sunlight. The green color that the plant cells have comes from this. Photosynthesis is a function in the plant cells but the animal cells don’t have them.

Plant cells unlike animal cells are classified within three types. What helps with the storage is called the parenchyma cells. The cells that are present when the maturity is going on and with having only one wall that is primary is known as the collenchyma cells. The cells that help with the support that is mechanical is known as the sclerenchyma cells.

Animal cells have something really remarkable with them in the fact that when sugar tries to enter the cells they can back down and turn it into carbon dioxide. When that happens then they have just created energy and plant cells are not able to do this.

These are just some of the differences between them but as you can see they are huge differences and the cells are all unique but there for a purpose because the animals and plants need them in order to survive and work the way that they are intended to be working.

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From a Healthy Cell To A Cancer Cell

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 09 Jul 2013  | Share on :

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Understanding the process through which healthy cells grow and evolve to become cancer cells is not hard at all. Cancer is a disease that can be formed in any moment, by people of all ages. The condition is developed due to uncontrollable cell growth. To understand more about this process watch the video below:

In all living organisms, cells divide, grow, become old and die, being then replaced by new healthy cells. When cancer is developed, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors. They invade nearby parts of the body, creating metastasis. There are many causes and risk factors which can lead to the development of this disease, depending on the type of cancer we are referring to.

Treatment will also vary according to a series of factors. However, one of the most important things patients should know is that the sooner the disease is traced, the higher are their chances to overcome it. Cancers, regardless of their type or location, are easier to cure in their first stages of development.

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Difference Between Healthy And Cancerous Cells

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 07 Jun 2013  | Share on :

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There are numerous important differences between cancer and normal cells. For specialists understanding how cancer cells are formed is crucial in establishing the cause, as well as a potential treatment for this hard to cure disease.

What are normal cells?

Normal cells have the property of dividing in an orderly manner. They produce more healthy cells, when the body needs them.

What are cancer cells?

Cancer cells are cells that develop in an abnormal manner. They are damaged cells that grow and affect normal cells, creating masses of cells and tumors.


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There are many differences between normal cells and cancer cells. Below you can find a list of the most important ones:

1. Growth. Cancer cells continue to grow even though the body needs no new cells. They create tumors and spread throughout the whole body. Normal cells stop reproducing when there are enough cells in the body.

2. Cell repair. In a healthy body, normal cells get old and damaged, but are immediately repaired or replaced by healthy cells. When cancer cells are formed, the body fails to recognize and replace damaged cells. Then, old or damaged cells start reproducing and they begin to multiply.

3. Ability to spread. Normal cells remain in the area of the body where they have been formed. On the other hand, cancer cells spread throughout the body, creating metastasis. This is how cancerous tumors are formed at distance from the location in which the cancer was first developed.


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Cancer cells and normal cells appear to look differently under the microscope. Cancerous cells have the ability to reproduce faster, before cells reach maturity. They remain immature and have the ability to evade the immune system, which fails to recognize and fight them off. Naturally, there are many other differences between cancer and normal cells. However, the aforementioned aspects are the most important ones in understanding how both of these cells function.

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Lung Cancer

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 13 May 2013  | Share on :

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Lung cancer is a frequently diagnosed type of cancer, which begins in the lungs. Lung cancer actually is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Both men and women are affected by lung cancer each year. In fact, this serious condition causes more deaths than colon, ovarian, breast and prostate cancers, all combined. Individuals who are heavy smokers have an increased risk of developing this type of cancer. The risk of being diagnosed with lung cancer is higher for individuals who smoke for many years, in high quantities. Quitting smoking reduces the chances of developing this disease.


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Below you can read a series of facts and information on lung cancer. Make sure to consider them all if you have reasons to suspect that you might be at risk of developing this disease.

The main signs and symptoms of lung cancer include:

  • Coughing up blood;
  • Chest pain;
  • Cough that does not go away, despite regular treatment;
  • Changes in chronic cough or smoker’s cough;
  • Bone pain;
  • Headache;
  • Losing weight with no particular reason;
  • Wheezing.

Seeing a doctor is a must as soon as you feel that there may be something wrong with your health. Make an appointment with a specialist when signs and symptoms that may worry you are felt. Do that as soon as possible, as this way you may get an early diagnosis and easier improve your health.


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Causes

It is a well known fact that the most common cause of lung cancer development is smoking. Smokers, as well as people exposed to secondhand smoke have an increased risk of being diagnosed with lung cancer. Still, the disease can be found in people who have never smoked, too.

Risk factors of lung cancer development include:

  • Smoking;
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke;
  • Family history of lung cancer;
  • Excessive alcohol consumption;
  • Exposure to radon gas;
  • Exposure to asbestos and other chemicals.


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Diagnosis

The signs and symptoms of lung cancer can easily be associated to other conditions, too. This is why specialists will recommend screening with the purpose to diagnose lung cancer. Screening can save lives, as when the cancer is found earlier, it has higher chances of being cured quicker and more successfully. A specialist may recommend you one of the following tests:

  • Imaging tests;
  • Sputum cytology;
  • Tissue sample.

After being diagnosed, lung cancer is staged. This means that specialists will try to find out in which stage the cancer is found in the patient’s body. Stages show the advancement, as well as the growth of the cancerous cells, being important for treatment, too. Depending on the stage of the cancer, doctors will recommend a certain type of treatment.

Stage I: The cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage II: The cancer has started to grow, affecting nearby structures. The lymph nodes are not affected.
Stage III: The tumor has moved to lymph nodes and even farther away, affecting nearby organs.
Stage IV: The cancer has spread, affecting even distant parts of the body.


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Treatment

Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment can include therapy, as well as surgery. Commonly in stages 1 and 2, the most recommended medical intervention is surgery. Sometimes chemotherapy or radiation therapy can be administrated to patients. In stage 3 treatment will include combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy, while surgery can sometimes be an option, depending on the results. In stage 4 chemotherapy, targeted drug therapy and supportive care will be used in the treatment of lung cancer.

Such as in the case of all types of cancers, lung cancer is easier to cure when found in one of its early stages. When the cancer grows, it starts spreading, becoming harder to cure.

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Frequently Asked Questions On Stem Cells

Filed under: Cell Diagram - 25 Apr 2013  | Share on :

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There is really no way you have not heard about stem cells. There are numerous debates surrounding this subject, stem cells being believed to be able to cure many types of serious conditions. In case you wonder what stem cells are and how they can work to help patients overcome the diseases they may be suffering from, here you will find a list of the most frequently asked questions on stem cells and all the right answers.


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1. What are stem cells?

This probably is the most common question regarding this subject. Stem cells are the cells that help creating new cells in healthy tissues. They also have the ability to repair tissues that have been injured or damaged. There are some characteristics that help distinguishing stem cells from all other types of cells. One of the most important such characteristic is the ability to self-renew. Stem cells have the ability to divide for a long period of time, being also able to differentiate into specialized cells with distinct functions.

2. What types of stem cells exist?

There are two main types of stem cells that are known to exist. They are adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. They can be obtained from living human tissue, from human embryos, as well as in the laboratory.


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3. What is the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?

As already mentioned there are two main types of stem cells. The stem cells that some organs contain are known as adult stem cells. They persist throughout the entire life of an individual and have an important role in repairing tissue. However, their capacity is limited, and naturally not all organs include stem cells. On the other hand, embryonic stem cells have the ability to divide almost indefinitely, being the most important source of stem cells for research, as well as for therapy.

4. What are the uses of stem cells?

Nowadays, specialists believe that stem cells have the ability to cure or help the treatment of a series of conditions. Stem cells can also offer the possibility to replace damaged cells and consequently treat a wide variety of diseases, such as diabetes, neurological conditions, but also cardiovascular disease and even cancer related conditions.


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5. Why is stem cell research a controversial subject?

Stem cell research has always been a controversial subject. This occurs mostly because research commonly uses embryonic stem cells. The only way known to derive embryonic stem cells supposes the destruction of um-implanted blastocyst-stage embryo at the 6th or 8th day of development. Human embryonic stem cells are extracted from human embryos. This is believed to be unmoral by some people. The ethics of stem cell research will surely continue to be a debated subject, even though its importance cannot be denied.

6. Have embryonic stem cells been used in treatments for humans?

Even though the role that embryonic stem cells can play in the treatment of a wide range of conditions has been widely debated for years, these stem cells have not yet been used in real treatments for humans. Regulatory restrictions that exist in some countries today have slowed down the progress on this manner. Still, research indicates that new discoveries can lead to the cure of some serious diseases.


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7. When will stem cells be used in treatments?

Adult stem cells already are used in the treatments of various conditions. In fact, this therapy has become common in clinical use more than 40 years ago. Bone marrow transplants, in which adult stem cells are used, are commonly helpful in the treatment of leukemia, as well as blood disorders and lymphoma, managing to save many lives, each year.

Researches hope that stem cells treatments will lead, in the future, to the cure of a wide range of diseases, including traumatic injuries, as well as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, spinal cord injury and even cancer. If the administration of such therapies will show results, millions of lives can be saved.

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How Is Cancer Formed?

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 18 Mar 2013  | Share on :

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One of the most important things that all patients should know regarding cancer is linked to the way this disease is formed. Cancer cells are formed from normal cells due to modifications or mutations. These mutations can occur spontaneously, but they may be caused by a series of factors, as well. For instance, cancer growth can be determined by nuclear radiation, electromagnetic radiation, as well as viruses, bacteria and fungi parasites. Chemicals present in air, water or food may also cause the growth of abnormal, cancerous cells.

Cancer cells are constantly developed in the human body. Specialists claim that the human body contains about 10,000 cancer cells at certain periods of time. These cells are contained by all healthy individuals. So, in this context appears the question why is some cases the cells turn into cancer, while in others they remain small and produce no harm to the body.


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Well, to be able to understand all that, you should know that the process of cell division and multiplying can be interrupted or changed by various factors. Not all damaged cells turn into cancer, as the immune system fights against them. This means that cells that have the potential of turning into cancer can be destroyed by various mechanisms available in a healthy immune system. This is a process that takes place continuously, consequently, cancer can become a reality for an individual in case his immune system is too weak or is not working properly.

There are various factors that can cause the weakness of the immune system. Some of the most important ones include a poor diet, lacking in vitamins and minerals, various genetic predispositions to mutation, the age, as well as the development of other conditions that turn out affecting the whole body of the patient.


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Cancer is a condition that can be developed by anyone, at any time. As the potential of developing this disease is present in all of us, there is no wonder that so many people are diagnosed with various types of cancer each year. There are certain factors that can cause an abnormal development of cells and an inadequate reaction from the immune system and they can be avoided. A strong immune system, the lack of stress, and a control over your health may help you stay healthy for a long period of time.

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Religion And Spirituality In Cancer Care

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 05 Feb 2013  | Share on :

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As there are many people that suffer from different types of cancer, researchers are now examining how spirituality and religion influence treatment. Blase N. Polite, MD, MPH, an assistant professor of medicine interview patients suffering from cancer to understand why some of them failed to receive chemotherapy treatment.


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The anwers that he received were related to religion and spirituality. He said: “It jumped off the page. Especially for African Americans religion and spirituality played an important role in cancer diagnosis, with varying implications.


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Faith can be a wonderful escape for coping during illness, but it can also be an impediemnt to seeking or adhering to treatment. Studies showed that patients who agreed that God is in control of their cancer, were less likely to complete curative chemotherapy.

Dr. Polite, who was a part of the study explained: “Through a much more elaborate set of questions, this study will provide us with a much deeper understanding of how people’s relationship with God relates to cancer.”


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Dr. Polite explained that religion has been traditionally left out of patient physician dialogue, it’s time to make a change. He has teamed up with George Fitchett, DMin, PhD, associate professor of preventative medicine at Rush University and a national leader in training chaplains to create a pilot chaplain-led intervention program that acknowledges the importance of spirituality when patients are diagnosed with cancer.

Future research will assess if the chaplaincy intervention improves patient satisfaction: “We hope to bring scientific and religious communities together by opening dialogue and creating discourse that will ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients,” said Dr. Polite.

Aasim Padela, MD, MSDc, assistant professor of medicine is also studying what impact religious beliefs have on healthcare behaviours among American Muslims.

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Patients’ Body Responds To The Anticancer Virus

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 26 Nov 2012  | Share on :

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Cancer-killing viruses are used by doctors to treat patients that suffer from lethal and fast growing brain tumours. A new study led by researchers at the Ohio University Comprehensive Cancer Cancer- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute proves that this happens because of the patients’ immune system that eliminates quickly the anticancer virus.


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The results of this study are published in the journal Nature Medicine and shows that the body responds to the anticancer virus as it does in the case of an infection. Additionally, specialized immune cells, called natural killer start to move in to eliminate the therapeutic virus in the brain and all these happen within hours.


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Scientists show that these cells attack the viruses when they express specific molecules particular molecules on their surface. These molecules are called NKp30 and NKp46. Caligiuri, one of the John L. Marakas Nationwide Insurance Enterprise Foundation Chair in Cancer Research says: “When we blocked those receptors, the virus has more time to work, and mice with these brain tumors live longer. The next step is to block these molecules on NK cells in glioblastoma patients and see if we can improve their outcome.”


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He also added: “These receptor molecules enable the NK cells to recognize and destroy the anticancer viruses before the viruses can destroy the tumor.” The study involved human glioblastoma tumor tissue, an oncolytic herpes simplex virus, mouse models, one of which hosted both human glioblastoma cells and human NK cells.

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All You Should Know About Cancer Cells

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 14 Nov 2012  | Share on :

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To be able to easily understand what cancer is, regardless of its type, you first have to know how cancer cells are developed. Cancer cells are the cells that grow and divide in an abnormal manner. The development of cancer cells in the human body is actually quite common. Unhealthy and old cells are constantly developed. When they get damaged, the body replaces them with healthy cells. Well, cancer is formed when the body fails to recognize cancer cells and consequently, they are not replaced. Masses of cancer cells form tumors.

Why are cancer cells developed?

Commonly it has been considered that healthy cells fail to recognize the cancerous ones when the immune system is damaged or affected in a way. However, it is important to know that there are numerous theories out there regarding the reason why healthy cells fail to complete their normal evolution, leading to the development of tumors. Some specialists actually claim that this happens when there is a lack of some molecules which are able to aid this process. Others say that stem cells may also be turned into cancer cells, at least when there is a surplus of SP2 protein.


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How are cancer cells developed?

The human body is formed by cells. Cells are actually considered to be the basic unit of life of all living organisms. The body contains both healthy and damaged or old cells. Healthy cells are produced constantly to replace the old ones. As more cells get old and damaged, other healthy cells are constantly formed. Well, when this process is affected, cancer is formed.

Cells that stop dividing in a controlled manner cause cancer. The disease is formed when healthy cells fail to recognize and replace the damaged ones. Old and damaged cells are not replaced by healthy ones, but healthy cells continue to be produced, even though the body does not need them. All these cells create masses of tissue. Shortly, this is how tumors are developed.


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For the human body to function properly, the balance between healthy and old cells has to be normal. When this simple process is affected in a way or another, cancerous tumors are formed. Tumors can be benign and malignant.

Cancer cells have the ability to spread. This means that they can easily spread to other parts of the body, causing secondary tumors.


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Understanding how cancer cells are formed is not that difficult. However, you first need to know how cells function and the process through which healthy cells replace the cells that die.

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Breast Cancer

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 25 Oct 2012  | Share on :

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Breast cancer is the cancer formed in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancers diagnosed in women from all over the world. Even though breast cancer is most common in women, it can be diagnosed in men, too. This disease can be extremely hard to overcome, but when diagnosed in one of its early stages, breast cancer be cured.


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Sings and symptoms

Early detection is crucial when talking about breast cancer. This is why patients should be careful at all signs and symptoms that may indicate the presence of this disease. There are many such symptoms that can be mentioned. They include:

  • The growth of a breast lump;
  • Bloody discharge from the nipple;
  • A change in the breast’s size or shape;
  • Redness of the skin;
  • Inverted nipple;
  • Changes to the skin over the breast;
  • Peeling, scaling or flaking of the nipple or the breast skin.

In case you trace any of these changes, you should see a doctor as soon as possible. Not all changes in your breast will turn out being breast cancer, but it is better to be sure.


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Causes and risk factors

What causes breast cancer is not certain. Breast cancer occurs when breast cells start growing in an abnormal manner. These are cells that divide more rapidly than healthy cells. When cancerous tumors grow, accumulating cells can start spreading to other organs of the body.

In most cases, breast cancer begins in the cells of the milk-producing ducts. However, the condition can also begin in the milk glands. Although there are no causes that can be associated to this condition, researchers have found a series of risk factors that may increase the possibility of developing breast cancer.

Here are some things you should know about breast cancer risk factors:

  • Women are more likely to develop this condition compared to men.
  • Breast cancer risk increases with age, so women over 55 are considered to be more likely to be diagnosed with the disease.
  • Patients who have already been diagnosed with breast cancer or who have someone in the family suffering from this condition, may develop it.

Other risk factors include:

  • Inherited genes that increase cancer risk;
  • Radiation exposure;
  • Obesity;
  • Alcohol consumption;
  • Post-menopausal hormone therapy;
  • Beginning your period before the age of 12;
  • Having your first child after the age of 35;
  • Beginning menopause after 55.

One of the most important things you need to know is that having these risk factors will not necessarily mean that you will develop breast cancer. However, making simple changes in your daily life may reduce the risk of developing this form of cancer. Exercise, limit alcohol consumption, avoid smoking and try to lead a healthy lifestyle.


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Diagnosis

There are several tests that doctors can use to diagnose breast cancer. Some of the most important ones include:

  1. Breast exam – your doctor will check for lumps or other abnormalities.
  2. Mammogram – is a test used to screen for breast cancer.
  3. Breast ultrasound – uses waves to produce images of the breast, helping doctors find abnormalities.
  4. Biopsy – can be used to remove a sample of the breast cells that are believed to be cancerous. The sample is used for laboratory tests.
  5. Breast magnetic resonance imaging – uses a magnet and radio waves to create pictures of the breast’s structure.

After being diagnosed, breast cancer is staged. Stages range from 0 to IV.

  • Stage 0 – the cancer is very small and noninvasive;
  • Stages 1-3 – the cancer is located within the breast, spreading to regional lymph nodes;
  • Stage 4 – the cancer starts spreading to other organs.


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Treatment

A doctor will establish the right treatment for each patient. Treatment will vary depending on the stage in which the disease is diagnosed, but also the overall health of the patient.

  • Surgery. Many patients undergo breast cancer surgery to remove the cancerous cells.
  • Radiation therapy. This therapy uses energy and x-rays to kill cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It can be used both before and after surgery, to shrink cancerous tumors or prevent recurrence, respectively.
  • Hormone therapy. This therapy can be used after surgery to decrease the chances of cancer recurrence.


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The human body is built of cells. The body creates cells, who have a circle of life. Cells die to be replaced by healthy cells. When healthy cells become abnormal, they divide more quickly than they should. Tumors actually are abnormal body cells that form a mass or a lump. This is the main reason why breast cancer can be formed any time, by anyone. Trying to get an early diagnosis and starting the right treatment as soon as possible will help patients easier overcome this disease.

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Brain Cancer

Filed under: Cancer cell diagram - 18 Oct 2012  | Share on :

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Brain cancer is caused by abnormal growths of cells in the brain. There are two types of brain cancer: primary and metastatic. Primary brain cancer starts in the brain and arises from primary brain cells or from the cells that form other brain components. Metastatic brain cancer starts in other parts of the body and then moves to the brain. Brain tumours can be malignant, with cancer cells that grow abnormally, quickly and benign, with no cancerous cells. Thus, not all brain tumours are cancerous as cancer is a term used only for malignant tumours.


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Primary Brain Tumours

Primary brain tumours are named after the type of brain cell from which they arise. Brain cancer develops when one type of cell transforms, loses its characteristics and then starts to grow and multiply abnormally. The main primary brain tumours are meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, gliomas, vestibular schwannomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumours.

The National Cancer Institute classifies tumours by the following grades:

  • Grade I. In this case, the tissue is benign and the cells look almost like normal brain cells as the cell growth is slow. 
  • Grade II: The cells look less like normal brain cells than those in grade I and the tissue is benign.
  • Grade III: The cells look totally different from normal brain cells and the tissue is malignant. 
  • Grade IV: The malignant tissue has cells that look very abnormal and they also grow very fast. 

Metastatic Brain Tumours

These tumours are made of cancerous cells that spread from a tumor located elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream. Usually, cancers that spread to the brain are those arising from breasts, lungs, kidney and melanoma, a type of skin cancer. Metastatic brain tumours are more common than primary brain tumours and they are named after the type of tissue from which the original cancer cells arose. Brain blood influences where the metastatic cancer cells will stay in the brain. Usually, approximately 85% locate in the cerebrum, the largest part of the brain.


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Symptoms Caused By Brain Tumours

The main symptoms caused by brain tumours are:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • headaches
  • problems with memory and thinking
  • numbness or tingling in legs or arms
  • muscle jerking 
  • muscle twitching
  • problems with walking and balance
  • seizures
  • weakness
  • blurry vision
  • difficulties with speech


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Risk Factors

There are a few risk factors that may determine brain tumours, but it’s not known for sure if these factors increase indeed someone’s risk of developing such a tumour:

  • HIV infection
  • cigarette smoking
  • a genetic risk
  • radiation to the head
  • environmental toxins (chemicals used in embalming chemicals, oil refineries, rubber industry chemicals)
  • smoking
  • artificial sweeter

Brain cancer symptoms take place very gradual in some people. Rarely, these symptoms emerge faster. In some individuals, the symptoms may be more pronounced in case the brain cancer is located in a certain brain lobe responsible for specific body functions.

Tests Used to Diagnose Brain Cancer

The fist thing that a doctor will do is to ask his patient about his medical history. He will also perform a physical examination of his patient. Depending on the results of this conversation, other tests will be done such as:

  • CT scan (computerised tomography)
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • tissue sample (biopsy)
  • electrolytes

Treatment For Brain Cancer

The treatment plan depends on each patient and is conceived by doctors specialised in brain cancer. Additionally, treatments depend on the type of tumor, its size, location, patient’s age, gender and his health status. The most common treatment categories for brain cancer are:

  • radiation therapy
  • surgery
  • chemotherapy
  • immunotherapy
  • hyperthermia


X ray of brain cancer

When You Should Go To The Doctor

You should seek medical care if you have some of the following symptoms:

  • lethargy
  • seizures
  • unexplained and persistent vomiting
  • new pattern of type of headaches
  • double vision
  • unexplained blurring vision, mainly on one side
  • changes in personality and behaviour
  • clumsiness
  • walking difficulty
  • sudden fever
  • difficulty in expressing yourself

Prognosis of Treated Brain Cancer

Survival of treated brain cancer depends on the cancer location, type, overall age and general health of the patient. Reports show that over 75% of children will survive longer than 5 years. Survival in adults greater than 5 years varies from less than 10% to a high of 32%, no matter what type of treatment is used. Recovering from this type of cancer is possible, but a complete recovery occurs very rarely.

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